Photography is a technique, but also an accumulation of experience.The following are the twelve most classic and practical photography techniques that have been gathered from the experience of countless photographers. Keeping them in mind will help you cope with many shooting scenes that are difficult to control. Friends of version 70 can take a look.
⒈Sunny 16 Rule
"Sixteen Laws of Sunshine" is a method to correctly estimate the exposure value in daylight when there is no light meter, so this rule is only suitable for use in sunny conditions.Set the aperture to F / 16, the shutter is synchronized with ISO, or slightly faster.For example, when the ISO is set to 100, the shutter should be set to 1/100 second (1/125 second).Therefore, according to this rule, F / 22 aperture should be used when shooting on the beach, and F / 11 aperture should be used when cloudy.
⒉ Moonlight 11, 8, and 5.6 rules (Moony11,8and5.6Rules)
If you want to photograph the moon, there is a good rule here.When the shutter is synchronized with ISO, F11 aperture is used for full moon shooting, F8 aperture is used for lunar moon, and F5 is used for new moon.6 aperture.
⒊Camera Shake Rule (CameraShakeRule)
When you shoot with a camera in hand, the shutter speed cannot be less than the reciprocal of the focal length of the lens.If the shutter speed is slower, the more likely it is that the sharpness will be reduced when the camera shakes.If the line-second with a focal length of 50mm or more is appropriate, only when the environment is dim, use a flash, a tripod, or place the camera on a hard object to prevent shaking.
⒋Gray Board Rule (AnatomicalGrayCard)
Carrying 18% of the gray board with you is a good tool for shooting.But what if there is no grayscale board?You can spread your palms toward the sun, measure the palms, and then add a level of exposure.
⒌Depth of Field Rule (DepthofFieldRules)
When the subject is deep, the focus point should be selected in the first 1/3 of the depth of field, because this way, the depth of field behind the focus point is twice that of the previous one.Various aperture and focal length combinations can use this rule.Remember, the smaller the aperture, the shorter the focal length, and the farther away from the subject, the greater the depth of field.
If you want to print your work as a large-size photo, the size of the photo cannot be greater than the length and width pixels of the digital picture divided by 200. If you have high requirements for the work, you must divide it by 250.
⒎Exposure Rule (ExposureRules)
When dealing with digital photos, the most common rule is to ensure that the high-light areas are exposed accurately, and the low-light areas follow him.But when dealing with negatives, especially color negatives, you better increase exposure.
⒏Quick Flash-fill rule (QuickFlash-fillRule)
When your camera cannot automatically output the controlled flash, set the speed of the flash to twice the film.If the subject is metered, the body selects the full aperture and the flash is set to the same aperture.In this way, the shaded area of the photo will be one level lower than the brightness of the subject.
The rule is simple: distance is multiplied by 2, and sensitivity is multiplied by 4.For example, when your flash is at ISO100, the effective distance is 20 meters.If you want the flash distance to reach 40 meters, you need to increase the sensitivity to ISO400.
If you want to double the resolution of a digital camera, then it is very simple, you need to quadruple the pixels.
⒒ Capture dynamic rules (Action-stoppingRule)
This rule is based on the empirical formula of angle and speed.If the object is captured by the shutter along the axis of the lens, then it is captured by the lens axis in seconds.That is, if the object is along the shutter speed of the lens axis.
⒓Sunset Rule (SunsetRule)
When shooting the sunset, measure the upper part of the sunset, but do not allow the sun to appear in your viewfinder.If you want the sunset to look an hour later than actual, you can subtract 1 from the exposure compensation
Appropriate exposure mode:
Automatic exposure is a kind of exposure method that the digital camera automatically analyzes and selects the exposure intensity according to the light situation, which is what people call a fools work.There is no technicality in this way, everything is automatically recognized by the * digital camera.Automatically set the aperture and shutter speed used according to the specific conditions of the shooting scene.When the light is insufficient, the camera will automatically turn on the built-in flash.In some news reports and emergencies, in order to grab time, automatic exposure is generally adopted.
Shutter priority is to automatically obtain the aperture value through camera metering when the shutter speed is manually defined.When shooting moving objects, we often find that the subject is blurry, mostly because the shutter speed is not fast enough.In this case, you can use the shutter priority mode, roughly determine a shutter value, and then shoot.When the shutter speed is less than 1/60 second, it is recommended to use a tripod to shoot, so as not to affect the sharpness of the photo due to hand shake.The faster the shutter, the less light enters; the slower the shutter, the more light enters.Shutter priority is mostly used for shooting sports objects, especially in sports shooting.The high-speed shutter can be used to freeze the instantaneous state of the object, while the slow-speed shutter can realize the blurring of moving objects.
Aperture priority is that the photographer first selects the aperture required for shooting, and then the camera determines the required shutter speed according to the scene light situation.The larger the aperture, the larger the amount of incoming light, the more obvious the background blur effect, the more prominent the subject being photographed; the smaller the aperture, the smaller the amount of incoming light, and the greater the depth of field before and after the focus.Generally speaking, macro shooting often uses a larger aperture to achieve the purpose and effect of blurring the messy background.In landscape shooting, in order to obtain clear and detailed images before and after, often use a smaller aperture to shoot.The large aperture is suitable for macro photography, while the small aperture is suitable for landscape photography.
4.Manual exposure mode
The manual exposure mode is entirely up to the user to determine the aperture and shutter speed required for shooting.Users can set the aperture and shutter speed according to their artistic creation intentions and expected shooting effects, providing users with great freedom.When the setting exceeds the sensitivity, the camera will be prompted by sound or flashing lights.For the inexperienced novice, the manual exposure mode is somewhat difficult, and the operation is slightly more complicated, it is difficult to capture the fleeting scene.
5.Exposure compensation adjustment
In the environment of complex light and high contrast and high contrast, using automatic exposure or shutter, aperture priority mode, sometimes it is difficult to take care of the whole, unable to highlight the subject, to achieve the desired effect, then the photographer needs to manually respond to the equipmentThe adjustment of the exposure parameters is called exposure value, also known as ± EV.For beginners, exposure compensation is generally used in still life and scene shooting.This occasion is suitable for easy parameter adjustment, and multiple photos are taken with different compensation schemes for selection.However, in a picture with great contrast, exposure compensation is difficult to take care of, and it is easy to lose sight of each other.
How to control imaging quality
First, use the appropriate aperture to obtain high-quality images.
In photography, controlling the lens aperture is one of the most important basic skills.Because the aperture value can affect the depth of field effect, shutter speed, imaging style and imaging quality!However, here we mainly discuss the effect of aperture size on imaging quality.
In general experience, the maximum or minimum aperture of a lens can not get very satisfactory image quality!When the aperture is fully opened, light will pass through almost the entire area of the lens lens and be imaged on the photosensitive object.In this way, the defects (scale errors) caused by the insufficient precision of the lens lens in the production process will be exposed in the final image.Therefore, we shrink the aperture so that only a part of the area of the lens center, rather than the entire area, passes through the light participating in the imaging.As a result, the manufacturing error of the part of the lens edge that does not transmit light has no chance to destroy the imaging quality, and the image quality has been improved to a certain extent.Therefore, according to this theory, the smaller the aperture (same lens, same focal length), the better the imaging.But in fact, we will encounter another problem: if the aperture is reduced to make the lens aperture too small, then the diffraction phenomenon that occurs when light passes through the aperture will become very serious.And this optical phenomenon will also reduce the imaging quality of the lens!
Because the aperture value = aperture diameter / lens focal length, the same aperture is used. The shorter the focal length of the lens, the smaller the aperture opening.Based on this relationship, it is not difficult to find that when taking pictures with a smaller aperture, the shorter the focal length of the lens, the easier it is to reduce the image quality due to light diffraction.Think about it, a lens with a focal length of 300mm, even if the aperture value is reduced to f32, at this time its aperture size is also larger than the aperture to f3.2s 30mm focal length lens has exactly the same aperture size!
Knowing this, we dont have to care about the "general experience" mentioned at the beginning.For example, I have a 70-300mm lens in my hand.I specifically tested its imaging quality at the 300mm end, and the result is that the smallest f29 and f32 are the best aperture!
Second, the shutter speed also affects the imaging quality of the lens.
First of all, I still have to repeat a "general experience", that is, if the shutter speed is expressed in 1 / M second, the lens focal length of the 135 camera is expressed in N millimeters.So when shooting with a hand-held camera, it is generally believed that M needs to be greater than N in order not to blur the image due to hand shaking.It is also more strictly proposed that M should be greater than 2N, so as to ensure the clarity of the image.In fact, the above "general experience" is not directly related to this article, because this article is entirely about the lens, and it also distinguishes between high-end lenses and cheap lenses.But because of the "general experience" mentioned above, many people blindly pursue faster shutter speeds.When they expect a clear image, they always think that "even if it is only a little faster, it will be clearer".This is a problem!
As we all know, SLR cameras have a weakness: At the moment of shooting, the movement of the reflector will cause the entire camera to shake, resulting in blurred images.In order to solve this problem, the designer added the function of the mirror pre-lift to some high-end cameras, effectively avoiding the vibration caused by the mirror.However, at present, most cameras still do not have this function.Of course, the same sentence: not because there is no technology, but because there is no profit!(My digital SLR body was bought for 6,000 yuan, isnt it still there?!) At this time, only we can find a way.Here, we mainly discuss the telephoto lens, because according to the similarity ratio in the geometry, the telephoto lens will magnify the camera shake and make the blurriness worse.
High-end telephoto lenses tend to be heavier on the one hand and equipped with special mounts on the other.The former seems to use heavier firearms when shooting, but it is more stable and easier to shoot, and gravity buffers the vibration.And in my experience, whether it is handheld shooting or using a tripod, this is the case.The latter allows us to use a tripod, the entire camera can be in a more stable state, of course, the vibration amplitude is reduced.But with ordinary cheap lenses, the situation is completely different: the lens body is light and not sturdy, although it is long but there is no special bracket.When shooting, the camera is completely connected to the tripod head.It just looks extremely unbalanced!At the moment of shooting, we can observe the obvious vibration from the viewfinder, and even hear the sound of various parts of the lens due to the inadequate combination!At this time, the imaging is naturally clear.But dont be frustrated, I will tell you now that you can take clear pictures with such a lens!The method is: add PL filter, add ND filter, shrink the aperture, lower the sensitivity (ISO) . In short, reduce the shutter speed as much as possible, not the improvement in the "general experience"!The reason for this is to extend the exposure time as much as possible.Because the vibration of the reflector is only generated when it is raised and lowered.The shutter was closed before the reflector was lowered.It can be seen that only the vibration generated when the reflector is lifted will cause the image to be blurred.Now we assume that this kind of vibration that can cause image blur will last 1/3 second, then if the duration of the entire exposure process is less than 1/3 second, we can think that the photo is completely generated by the cameras vibration.In other words, its clarity is 100% adversely affected by camera shake.But if the exposure time is 3 seconds, the clarity of the photo is only 11.11% were adversely affected by camera shake.In this way, the size of the fish tank "good image" of the pepper red arowana can cover the "bad image", and the clarity of the photo is significantly improved.
Of course, if the photographic light is strong enough to make "M greater than N" or even "M greater than 2N", then it is obviously the most ideal.Only when the N value is large and the light is insufficient, such as when taking pictures indoors, in a forest, or at dusk or dawn, do we consider reducing the shutter speed.If the aperture is f8 and the sensitivity is ISO200, the shutter speed is only 1/60 second, so it is meaningless to figure out how to increase the speed.Because whether it is to open a large aperture or increase the sensitivity will significantly reduce the picture quality.In this way, we shrink the aperture to f32, lower the sensitivity to ISO100, and add the PL filter, the shutter speed can be reduced to 1.5 seconds.
Third, beware of the impact of glare on picture quality.
We may be helpless for the glare connected by a line of colored spots of different sizes.Because that glare is caused by the presence of particularly bright spots in the picture.Such as the sun or street lights.These things exist in the picture, and if blocked, they will not be able to shoot.Although high-end lenses can avoid glare to a greater extent, sometimes such glare is also quite beautiful.For the other most common kind of glare, we can alleviate its impact on the picture in our own way.
In fact, glare is not only observed through the lens.We can observe it with our own eyes: open a book and raise it with our left hand to look at the sky. We will find that the words on the book are not as clear as usual, as if there is a layer of mist on them.This is what glare is doing.Then use your right palm to block the sky as much as possible, and move towards the book, and finally put your palm against the top of the book.In this process, we can see that the "mist" layer is getting lighter and lighter, and the words have become more and more clear.This is true for the eyes, as is the lens.The lens hood on the lens plays the role of the palm just now.However, the hood is often not made long enough, here are three reasons: First, the occlusion range of the hood should take care of the wider end of the zoom lens; Second, it is too long to be convenient to carry or use;Cost of production.At this time, the advantages of SLR cameras are reflected.We can use our hands, hats, notebooks, and even reflectors to obscure the light in front of the lens, but it is not in the picture.Then carefully observe the effect in the viewfinder to control and adjust the direction and angle of occlusion.Until we think that the scene we are seeing is in the most appropriate level of clarity (transparency), then press the shutter.Especially in "slow photography" such as landscape photography, this method is quite practical.
Fourth, change the distance appropriately to obtain better results.
This actually requires us to be good at taking pictures with different focal lengths of the zoom lens, that is, there are two problems: on the one hand, because the imaging quality of the zoom lens has different focal lengths.In general (especially lenses designed for digital cameras), when shooting with a shorter focal length, imaging is better.The main performance is high resolution, high contrast, and saturated color.When using the telephoto end of an ordinary cheap lens, the opposite situation often occurs: low resolution, insufficient contrast, and dull colors, which is what the movie friends often say "meat."Therefore, we would rather use "foot zoom", use the best focal length of the lens as much as possible to obtain better quality images, and dont blindly believe that the "large zoom" is now more and more exaggerated on the lens.On the other hand, because most cheap lenses do not have a large aperture, if you need to blur the background (including blurred foreground), it is inevitable.This is also an important reason why many filmmakers spare no expense to purchase large aperture lenses.But in fact, to blur the background, using a large aperture is not the only solution.Be aware that blurring the background is to make the depth of field smaller.The depth of field is related to the three factors of aperture, focal length and shooting distance.The larger the aperture, the longer the focal length and the shorter the shooting distance, the smaller the depth of field.Conversely, the greater the depth of field.Therefore, even if the aperture size does not meet our requirements, it is only a third of the deficiency.As long as the focal length and the camera distance are well controlled, you can also obtain a satisfactory background blur effect.
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