Diagnosis and prevention of common freshwater fish diseases

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Diagnosis and prevention of common freshwater fish diseases

Diagnosis and prevention of common freshwater fish diseases_Aquatic Fisheries_Agriculture, Forestry, Animal Husbandry and Fishery_Professional Information.Diagnosis and prevention of common freshwater fish diseases ? ? ? 病毒性疾病 细菌性疾病 真菌性疾病 寄生虫性疾病 病毒性疾病 1、草鱼出血病 是一种严重危害草鱼和青鱼的一种病毒传染 病。Clinically, red fin, red gill cover, red intestine and red

  Diagnosis and prevention of common freshwater fish diseases ? ? ? 病毒性疾病 细菌性疾病 真菌性疾病 寄生虫性疾病 病毒性疾病 1、草鱼出血病 是一种严重危害草鱼和青鱼的一种病毒传染 病。Clinically, it is characterized by one or more symptoms such as red fin, red gill cover, red intestine and red muscle, which is classified as a second-class animal disease by the Ministry of Agriculture. [Pathogen]: Grass Carp Reo Virus (GCRV) or Grass Carp Hemorrhagic Virus (GCHV). [Epidemic characteristics]: Widely endemic areas, long epidemic seasons, high morbidity, high mortality and harmful viral infections. 主要危害全长2.Grass carp species of 5-15 cm and grass carp of the first instar; the virus can also infect freshwater fish such as ear fish, silver carp, bighead, crucian carp and carp.The death rate of grass carp was generally 30-50%, and the highest was 70-80%.Grass carp and herring less than 2 years old are less ill, but can carry viruses and become a source of infection.It mainly occurs in the season of May-September when the water temperature is between 20-30℃, especially 25-28℃ as the epidemic peak. 病程分三个阶段。 1) Incubation period: the period from when the virus invades the fish to before symptoms appear is called the incubation period.The incubation period of grass carp bleeding disease is generally 310 days.During this period, the fishs appearance was normal without any symptoms, activity and feeding. ((2) Precursor period: Sick fish have begun to show symptoms, but are not obvious enough, generally 1-2 days.At this time, the body color of the sick fish darkened and turned black, solo swimming alone, and feeding decreased or stopped. (3) Full development period: Sick fish have obvious changes in function, metabolism or morphology, which is also the climax period.Generally 1-2d.During this period, the sick fish died of typical symptoms such as congestion and bleeding. 【病状与病理】病鱼体色一般暗黑色或微红。较小 的鱼种在阳光或灯光下透视,可见皮下肌肉充血、 出血;病鱼的口腔、上下颌、头顶部、眼眶周围、 鳃盖、鳃及鳍条基部充血,有时眼球突出;肌肉呈 点状或块状充血、出血,严重时肌肉呈粉红色,这 时鳃常呈现“白鳃”;也有鳃瓣呈现红色斑块状充 血。Intestinal congestion, the whole or part of the intestinal wall is bright red due to congestion, and in mild cases, there may be bleeding points and ring-shaped bleeding in the intestinal wall.But the intestinal wall is still resilient, and there is no food in the intestine. 草鱼出血病并发细菌性肠炎 草鱼出血病并发细菌性肠炎 草鱼出血病并发细菌性肠炎 【诊断】目前草鱼出血病的诊断尚无国家标准, 行业标准尚在制定中。 (1) Make a preliminary diagnosis based on clinical symptoms and prevalence. 水温22-30℃、尤其是25-28℃时,草鱼、青鱼 鱼苗大量死亡,而其他同塘鱼类并无此现象, 病鱼出现上述症状中的一种或多种,应作为草 鱼出血病Suspected cases.Need further diagnosis. (2) Sample collection: take 150 asymptomatic fish or 10 sick fish for pathogen isolation and identification. (3) Laboratory diagnosis. (4) Differential diagnosis: Pay attention to the difference between grass carp hemorrhage and bacterial enteritis, which are mainly intestinal bleeding.患草鱼出血病病鱼的肠壁 弹性较好、肠壁内黏液较少,严重时肠腔内有大量 红细胞及成片脱落的上皮细胞;而患肠炎病病鱼的 肠壁弹性较差,肠壁内黏液较多,严重时肠腔内有 大量黏液和坏死脱落的上皮细胞,红细胞较少。 【防治】目前无有效的药物用于治疗,最有效地控 制措施是注射草鱼出血病灭活疫苗或草鱼出血病活 (减毒)疫苗,也有部分地区使用组织浆灭活疫苗, 其中草鱼出血病活疫苗(GCHV-892株)已获得生 产批准文号。 (1)预防措施 ①对苗种场、良种场实施防疫条件审核、苗种生产 许可管理制度;②加强水源消毒,对繁殖用鱼卵和 亲鱼、引进的苗种及相应设施进行严格消毒;③加 强疫病监测;④培育或引进抗病品种;⑤每15d使 用1次高碘酸钠溶液1%(g/g)、5 %(g/g )、10 %(g/g)300-500倍水稀释液全池泼洒,每立方米 水体量为0.015-0.02g. (2) Disposal: If the diseased fish is found, it must be destroyed, and the aquaculture water body, tools, transportation vehicles and surrounding areas should be disinfected. 2、

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锦鲤疱疹病毒病 锦鲤疱疹病毒病是鲤和锦鲤的一种急性、接触 性infectious disease.The Ministry of Agriculture announced that it is a Class 2 animal disease, and the World Health Organization lists it as a mandatory disease. [Pathogen]Carp herpes virus type 3, also known as Koi herpes virus. [Popular characteristics]Koi, carp, and ghost carp and hybrids of these varieties are highly sensitive to KHV.鲤科鱼类,包括白 鲢草鱼鳙未有感染KHV的报道,这些鲤科鱼类 无论与鲤在自然条件下混养或与病鱼同居感染, 直接接触病毒而不发病,但有为病毒携带者的 可能性。 目前的流行病学研究表明,KHV传播迅速,可感 染任何年龄的锦鲤和鲤,死亡率高达80%-100%。 The optimal temperature for onset is 23-28°C (below 18°C and above 30°C will not cause death).Infected fish, the longer the water temperature lasts between 18 and 27°C, the greater the likelihood of disease outbreaks, and the mortality rate is significantly reduced outside the water temperature.The disease occurs mostly in high-temperature seasons, with an incubation period of 14 days. The fish begins to die 24-48 hours after the onset of symptoms and symptoms. The mortality rate can quickly reach 80-100% within 2-4 days. 锦鲤疱疹病毒病 患病鱼无力、无食欲,呈 无方向感的游泳,或在水 中呈头朝下尾朝上的姿势 的飘游,甚至停止游泳。 鱼体皮肤上出现苍白的块 斑和水泡,,鳍条尤其是 尾鳍充血,鳃出血并产生 大量粘液,或出现大小不 等的斑块状组织坏死,鳞 片有血丝,鱼眼凹陷,类 似寄生虫Infection and bacterial infection, died 24-48h after the onset of symptoms. Some fish show neurological symptoms, and a small stimulus can cause a strong reaction, followed by an inactive period. 【诊断】目前尚无国家标准。 (1) Preliminary diagnosis: Only carps (including koi) and variants can be infected to death.Other species such as goldfish and grass carp in the same system can even maintain long-term contact with koi without disease, this feature can help the diagnosis of the disease.A large number of deaths occur at water temperatures of 18-30°C. Water temperatures increase or decrease, and mortality rates decrease or stop.The death is extremely fast, from 24-48 hours from illness to death; the mortality rate is extremely high, such as the mortality rate can reach 80-100% within 10 days of disease outbreak. (2) Sample collection: (3) Laboratory diagnosis. (4) Differential diagnosis: It is distinguished from ordinary bacterial infections and parasitic invasions, especially from bacterial gill disease. 【防治】目前无有效的药物治疗 (1)防治措施①加强进出口口岸检疫; ②对苗种 场、良种场实施防疫条件审核、苗种生产许可管理 制度;③加强疫病监测;④培育或引进抗病品种; ⑤加强饲养管理等综合措施,应对水源、繁殖的鱼 卵和亲鱼、引进的苗种及相应设施进行严格消毒, 切断传染源;⑥将感染鱼饲养于20-28℃水中一算 时间,然后降低或升高温度使病毒失活,类似于疫 苗免疫,从而使机体获得免疫力,达到免疫的目的。 (2) Treatment: If a similar case is found, it must be reported to the fishery department in time; sick and dead fish must be destroyed, and the water and utensils must be thoroughly disinfected. 3、鲤痘疮病 【病原】鲤疱疹病毒2型。 [Popular characteristics]The disease is prevalent in Europe.Carps are particularly sensitive to this disease.主要危害鲤、鲫及圆腹雅罗鱼等,流 行于冬季及早春低温(10-16℃)时,水质肥的 池塘、水库和高密度的网箱养殖流行较为普遍, 当水温升高后Will gradually heal itself.The disease is transmitted through contact, and can also be transmitted through monozoan, leech and fish lice. 鲤痘疮病 早期病鱼体表出现乳白色小斑 点,并覆盖一层很薄的白色黏 液,随着病情的发展,白色斑 点的大小和数目逐渐增加、扩 大和变厚,其形状及大小各异, 直径可从1cm左右增大到数厘米, 或更大些,厚1~5mm左右,严 重时可融合成一片。增生物表 面初期光滑,后来变粗糙并呈 玻璃样或蜡样,质地由柔软变 成软骨状,较坚硬,颜色为浅 乳白色、奶油色,俗称“石蜡 样增生物”,状似痘疮,这种 增生物一般不能被摩擦掉,但 增长到一定程度会自然脱落, 接着又在原患部再次出现新的 增生物。When the growth area is not large, it is not harmful to sick fish, especially large fish, and will not cause death. 【诊断】(1)根据“石蜡状增生物”等症状及流 行情况,做初步诊断;(2)病理组织学检查;(3) 电子显微镜观察; 【防治】①加强综合预防措施,严格执行检疫制度; ②流行地区改养对该病不敏感的鱼类;③升高水温 及适当稀养;④将病鱼放入含氧量高的清洁水中 (流水更好),增生物会自行脱落。 (2) Treatment method: ① drain 3/5 of the original pool water, use quick lime to splash the pool, and adjust ph9.Add fresh water after 4-10; ② Use 10% povidone-iodine solution per cubic meter of water per d. 0.45-0.75ml, splashing the whole pool; ③ Add silver rocker blue root per kilogram of feed 3.2-4.8g, or Qiwei Banlangen 8-16g, fed 2 times per d, continuous feeding for 7d. 4、鲤春病毒血症 鲤春病毒血症又称鲤鳔炎症、急性传染性腹水和 鲤传染性腹水症等,是由鲤春病毒血症病毒引起鲤 科鱼类的一种急性、出血性传染病。The Ministry of Agriculture classified it as a category of animal disease.The World Health Organization lists it as a mandatory disease. [Pathogen]is common carp spring virus (SVCV).[Popular characteristics]Carp spring viremia was first prevalent in Eastern and Central Europe, and then spread to most parts of Europe, seriously harming the European aquaculture industry.With the fish trade and introduction, the disease has spread to countries such as the Americas and my country. SVCV感染谱广泛,主要感染鲤和锦鲤,可引起鲤 和锦鲤大批发病和死亡,还可感染鲢、鳙、鲫和欧 鲇等各种鲤科鱼类,

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可使虹鳟、草鱼、狗鱼人工感 染发病。Fish of all ages can get sick, but the younger the fish, the easier it is to become infected. The disease begins in the spring when the water temperature is above 7°C. It is prevalent when the water temperature is 1320°C, and is most prevalent when the water temperature is 15-17°C.在春 季水温低于15℃时,鲤越冬由于长期的低水温,免 疫力降低,容易大面积流行,暴发鲤春病毒病,因 而,春季成为疾病流行的主要季节;当水温超过 22℃就不再Onset, carp spring viremia was named.60℃ 30min, Ph12 10min, pH3 3h, can inactivate the virus. 传染源为病鱼、死鱼和病毒携带鱼。The route of infection mainly uses water as a medium. The virus can invade through the gills and intestines and can remain in the blood of infected carps for 11 weeks.When the water temperature is 10-15℃, the incubation period is about 20d.Trauma is also an important spreading factor. In addition, fish parasites such as carps or leeches can get the virus from the virus-bearing fish body and spread it to healthy carp bodies.Sperm and fish eggs also carry viruses, and there may also be vertical transmission routes. 【症状与病理】 病鱼体色发黑,腹部膨大,鳃丝苍白,眼球突出, 肛门红肿,皮肤、鳃和眼球常有出血斑点。Sometimes skeletal muscle tremors can be seen. When the sick fish pulls out the water, it can be seen that the ascites flows out of the anus automatically.由于鱼体内的水盐平衡遭到破坏,受感 染鱼的临床症状表现为体内出血、腹膜炎以及出现 腹水,肠道严重发炎,其他内脏上也有出血斑点, 其中以鰾最为常见;肌肉也因出血而It appears red; the liver, spleen, and kidneys are enlarged.The disease is often accompanied by concurrent infections with bacteria and parasites. 鲤春病毒血症 病鱼体色发黑,腹部膨大, 鳃丝苍白,眼球突出,肛门 红肿,皮肤、鳃和眼球常有 出血斑点。Sometimes skeletal muscle tremors can be seen, and when the sick fish pulls out the water, it can be seen that the ascites flows out of the anus automatically.由 于鱼体内的水盐平衡遭到破 坏,受感染鱼的临床症状表 现为体内出血、腹膜炎以及 出现腹水,肠道严重发炎, 其他内脏上也有出血斑点, 其中以鰾最为常见;肌肉也 因出血而It appears red; the liver, spleen, and kidneys are enlarged.The disease is often accompanied by concurrent infections with bacteria and parasites. 【诊断】鲤春病毒血症的诊断,可根据发病水温、 病鱼外表特征与临床症状作出初步判断。For the diagnosis of the epidemic, refer to "Fish Quarantine Methods Part 5: Common Carp Viremia Virus".Under natural conditions, SVC usually co-infects or secondary infections with bacterial pathogens.Virus infection alone usually has no open lesions on the surface of the body, such as obvious open lesions on the surface of sick fish, indicating a mixed bacterial infection. 【Prevention and treatment】At present, the only feasible prevention method for the disease is to avoid contact with the virus.The disease vaccine is only in the experimental stage.Therefore, strict quarantine, ensuring water sources, introducing fish eggs and fish without viruses, and disinfecting fish farming facilities are practical prevention measures. 鱼类细菌性疾病 1、烂鳃病 一般指青鱼、草鱼、鲢、鳙、鲤、鲫、鮰、 团头鲂和罗非鱼等淡水养殖鱼类鳃部以糜 烂、溃烂为特征的疾病。 [Pathogen]Cytobacteria columnar, once called Cellulophilus columnaris, Flexibacter columnaris, and Flavobacterium columnaris. 【流行特点】该病主要危害草鱼和青鱼,从鱼种和 青鱼,从鱼种至成鱼均可受害;鲤、鲫、鲢、鳙、 团头鲂和罗非鱼等也可感染。It is generally popular from April to October, with summer being the most popular.The disease begins when the water temperature is above 15℃, and becomes popular when it exceeds 20℃.When the water temperature is in the range of 15-35°C, the higher the water temperature, the shorter the lethal time.There are epidemics in fish farming areas all over the country, often complicated by infectious enteritis, hemorrhage, and erythroderma.Infection is caused by direct contact between the fish body and the pathogen, and gills are particularly susceptible to infection after damage. They are not susceptible to infection when the water quality is good, the stocking density is reasonable, and the gill filaments are intact. 【症状与病理】病鱼行动缓慢,反应迟钝,常离群 独游;体色发黑,尤以头部为甚,常称为“乌头 瘟”;病鱼鳃盖骨的内表皮往往充血,严重时中间 部分的表皮常腐蚀成1个圆形不规则的透明小区, 俗称“开天窗”。Gill filaments secrete mucus increased, swollen, gill-like, local gray or pale red due to ischemia, or local congestion into purple-red or bleeding points.In severe cases, the gill filaments are ulcerated, the epithelial cells of the gills are necrotic and shed, and the cartilage of the gills is exposed. The necrosis often has bacteria and dirt adhering to it, and it looks very dirty and yellowish. 烂鳃病 病鱼行动缓慢,反应迟钝, 常离群独游;体色发黑, 尤以头部为甚,常称为 “乌头瘟”;病鱼鳃盖骨 的内表皮往往充血,严重 时中间部分的表皮常腐蚀 成1个圆形不规则的透明小 区,俗称“开天窗”。The gill silk secretes increased mucus, swells, and takes the form of a gill. It is off-white or pale red due to ischemia, or the local congestion becomes purple-red or has bleeding points. In severe cases, the gill filaments are ulcerated, the gill epithelial cells are necrotic and shed, and the gill filament cartilage is exposed. The necrosis often has bacteria and dirt adhered, and it looks very dirty and yellowish. 【诊断】 (1)初步诊断 1、肉眼诊断要点是鱼体发黑,鳃丝肿胀,粘液增 多,鳃丝末端腐烂缺损,软骨外露。 2. Take pale yellow mucus on the gills or cut off a small amount of gill filaments at the lesion to make a water immersion piece. After 20-30 minutes, observe under a microscope. There are a large number of elongated, gliding bacillus.Some bacteria are fixed at one end and slowly swing back and forth in a bracket at the other end.Some bacterial cells are clustered into piles, shaped like "pillars" like prickly pear or prickly pear, or coral-like and star-shaped, which can be diagnosed initially. (2)实验室诊断 (3)鉴别诊断 :应注意与下列鳃病相区别 1、

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车轮虫、指环虫等寄生虫引起的鳃病:显微镜 下,可以见到鳃上有大量的车轮虫或指环虫,用大 黄和抗菌药物治疗无效。 2. Gill disease caused by Greater China fleas: Great China fleas like small maggots can be seen on the gills, or the end of the gill silk of the diseased fish is swollen, bent and deformed. 3. Gill disease caused by gill mold: The mycelium of the pathogen can be seen under the microscope to grow into the gill small tissues or blood vessels and cartilage, and the yellow columnar bacteria does not enter the gill tissue. 【防治】 (1)、预防措施 1、彻底清塘,鱼池施肥时应使用经过充分发酵后 的有机肥。 2、选择优质健康鱼种:鱼种下塘前,用10mg/L 浓度的漂白粉水溶液或15-20mg/L的高锰酸钾溶液 药浴15-30min;或用2%-4%食盐水溶液药Bath 5-10min. 3. During the onset season, sprinkle quicklime once every half month at a concentration of 15-20 mg/L to keep the pH of the pool water at around 8.Or spray bleaching powder once every half a month, the concentration is 1mg/L, which can effectively prevent the occurrence of this disease. (2)治疗方法 1、使用中草药进行治疗:可选用双黄苦参散、青 板黄柏散、三黄散、板蓝根末、大黄散、大黄苓鱼 散和大黄五倍子散等中草药治疗,用法用量按使用 说明get on. 2. Sprinkle chlorine dioxide in the whole pool with a concentration of 0.2-0.3mg/L, or splashing dibromohydantoin at a concentration of 0.2-0.3mg/L. 3、使用喹诺酮类药物进行治疗:每千克鱼体重每 日1次拌饵投喂诺氟沙星、盐酸小檗碱预混剂 (100g:诺氟沙星9g+盐酸小檗碱2g)15-20mg,连用 3d. 2、白皮病 一般指青鱼、草鱼、鲢、鳙鱼苗体表性疾病。 [Pathogen]Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pathogens are susceptible to infections on the surface of the body or parts of parasites. [Epidemic characteristics]White skin disease occurs all over the country. Water temperature above 25℃ is the epidemic season. It is one of the main diseases of silver carp and bighead carp, and grass carp herring sometimes occurs.The disease mainly occurs at the stage of rearing silver carp and bighead carp fry and summer flowers in 2030d, and grass carp may sometimes become ill in those years.Acute epidemics can often form, and adult fish aged 1 and above can occasionally develop the disease.The course of disease is short, the disease is fierce, and the mortality rate is very high. A large number of deaths will occur within 2-3 days after the onset. 该病以鱼苗、鱼种如1夏龄鲢鳙多见,1夏龄草鱼 也可发现。Adults of 1 year old and above are occasionally seen to occur. The epidemic season is June-August every year, especially when the fish body is injured by accidental operation before or after the Xiahua Fentang, or when there are a large number of parasites such as rotifers on the body surface that injure the fish body.The pathogens of this disease are widespread in freshwater bodies. Due to the unclean and deteriorating water quality, especially the application of feces that are not fully fermented, pathogenic bacteria can easily breed and reproduce, and fish bodies are more susceptible to disease.The general mortality rate is about 30%, the highest mortality rate can reach more than 45%, and it will die 2-3 days after onset. 白皮病 发病初期,尾柄处发 白,随着病情的发展 迅速扩展蔓延,以致 自背鳍基部后面的体 表全部发白。Severely sick fish with rotten caudal fin or incomplete.The sick fish has its head down and its tail up, perpendicular to the water surface, sometimes struggling to swim, sometimes hanging in the water, and soon the sick fish will die. [Diagnosis](1) Preliminary diagnosis 1. According to the epidemic season and the temperature of the disease. 2. There are a large number of bacillus bacteria in the skin of the silver carp, bighead carp fry, and the dorsal fin of the fingerling to the caudal shank. A large number of bacillus exists in the microscopic examination, and there is no clinical symptoms such as redness and redness in the skin of the fin strip. (2)实验室诊断 【防治】 (1)预防措施 1、彻底清塘,鱼池施肥时应施用经过充分发酵后 的有机肥。2、 选择优质健康鱼种:鱼种下塘前, 用10mg/L浓度的漂白粉水溶液或15-20mg/L的高锰 酸钾溶液药浴15-30min;或用2%-4%食盐水溶液药浴 5-10min.3. During the disease season, bleach the powder 1-2 times a week throughout the pond. The dosage depends on the size of the pond and the depth of the water. It is generally 250500g per acre and 1-2 times of quick lime per month.4. When fishing, transporting and stocking, the fish body should be avoided as much as possible. When parasites are found on the body surface, they should be killed in time.5. Xiahua should be divided into ponds in time. (2)治疗方法 3、赤皮病 【病原】荧光假单胞菌 【流行特点】赤皮病全国各地一年四季都流行, 尤其在捕捞运输后及北方越冬后,最易引发流行。 The disease is one of the main diseases of grass carp and herring. It can be affected by a variety of freshwater fish such as carp, crucian carp, and head bream; the disease occurs mostly in 2-3 year old fish, and can also occur in the same year.It often occurs at the same time as enteritis and gill disease, resulting in complications.Sources of infection are water bodies, utensils, and fish that are contaminated with Pseudomonas fluorescens.Pseudomonas fluorescens is a conditionally pathogenic bacterium.When the surface of the fish is intact, pathogenic bacteria cannot invade the skin of the fish. Only when the fish is mechanically damaged or frostbitten due to fishing and transportation, or the surface of the fish is damaged by parasites, can the pathogenic bacteria enter the fish. 【诊断】 (1)、初步诊断:根据外表症状即可诊断,并且 患病鱼必有受伤史。 (2)、实验室诊断: 赤皮病 病鱼行动缓慢,反应迟钝,衰 弱的独游于水面,在鳞片脱落 和鳍条腐烂处往往出现水霉菌 寄生,鱼体表局部或大部出血 发言,鳞片脱落,特别是鱼体 两侧和腹部最为明显,鳍的基 部或整个鳍充血,鳍的末端腐 烂,鳍条间的组织也被破坏, 使鳍条成扫帚状,形成“驻 鳍”,鱼的上下颌及鳃盖部分 充血,呈块状红斑,鳃盖中部 表皮有时烂去一块,以致透明 呈小圆窗状。Sometimes the intestines of fish are congested and inflamed. (3)、鉴别诊断:应与疖疮病相区别。The initial surface of furunculosis is also hyperemic and inflamed, the scales are shedding, but it is limited to a small area, and the red and swollen parts are higher than the body surface. 【Prevention】 (1) Preventive measures ① Thoroughly clear the pond.②During the operations of fishing, transportation and stocking, try to avoid injury to the fish body; the wintering ponds in the north should be deepened to prevent frostbite of the fish body.③Before stocking, the fish can be soaked with 3-4% concentrated salt water for 5-15min; or 5-8mg/L bleach solution for 2030min. (2)治疗方法: ①使用中草药进行治疗,可选用双黄苦参散、山青 五黄散、根莲解毒散、加减消黄散和青莲白贯散等 中草药治疗,用法用量按Instructions for use. ②使用磺胺类药物进行治疗,每千克鱼体每日拌饵 投喂磺胺间甲氧嘧啶钠粉(以磺胺间甲氧嘧啶钠计, 规格为10%)80-160mg(首次用量加倍),连用46d. 4、竖鳞病 竖鳞病又称竖立病、松麟病和松球病等。The disease mainly harms carp, crucian carp, goldfish, grass carp, and silver carp sometimes suffers from this disease, which can be affected from larger fish species and broodstock. [Pathogen]It is preliminarily considered to be Pseudomonas punctata. [Popular characteristics]It often occurs in fish farming areas such as Northeast my country, North China, East China, and Sichuan. It is mainly prevalent in still water breeding ponds and high-density farming conditions, and rarely occurs in running water fish ponds. The disease mainly occurs in spring and spring, with a water temperature of 17-22°C, sometimes in the late winter.The bacterium is a bacterium that is often present in water. It is infected through the skin when the water is dirty and the fish is injured. 竖鳞病 病鱼离群独游,游动缓慢无 力,身体失去平衡,身体倒 转,腹部向上,浮于水面。 In the early stage of the disease, the fish body is black and rough. The scales on the front of the fish body stand upright and spread outward like a pine ball. The squamous sac at the base of the scale is edematous, and the translucent exudate accumulates inside, so that the scales are erected.In severe cases, the scales of the whole body stand upright, and bloody exudate accumulates in the squamous sac. Lightly press the scales with your fingers, and the exudate will be ejected from under the scales, and the scales will fall off.Sick fish are often accompanied by fin bases, slightly congested skin, protruding eyeballs, enlarged abdomen, and ascites.Sick fish anemia, the color of gills, liver, spleen and kidneys are lightened, and the epidermis in the gill cover is congested. The skin, gills, liver, spleen, kidney and intestinal tissues all have different degrees of lesions. 【诊断】根据其症状。If the scales are erected, the eyeballs are protruding, the abdomen is swollen, the ascites, there is fluid in the squamous sac, and the exudate can be ejected by gently pressing the scales. The vertical scale of goldfish should be distinguished from normal pearl scale.The scales of the pearl scale goldfish are calcareous and shiny, giving people no feeling of feeling; the scales of the sick fish with vertical scale disease are dull, and the sick fish usually sink on the bottom of the water or lose their balance. 【防治】 (1)预防措施: ①在捕捞、运输和放养等操作过程中,尽量避免 鱼体受伤; ②发病初期加注新水,可使病情停止蔓延;③用 3%食盐水浸泡鱼体10-15min;或用2%食盐和3%小 苏打混合液浸泡10min;或用捣烂的大蒜250g加入 50kg水,多次浸泡病鱼。 (2) Therapeutic method: Use Chinese herbal medicine for treatment. You can use traditional Chinese medicine treatment such as Qingban and Huangbaisan. The usage and dosage should follow the instructions.Treatment with sulfonamides, compound yellow flavimethine sodium powder (specified as 250g: sulfadiazine 10g + trimethoprim 2g) 2 times per day per kilogram of fish body weight, every time the bait is mixed 1.5g, used in conjunction with 6d. 5、鲤白云病 【病原】荧光假单胞菌非运动性变异种(日本)或 恶臭假单胞菌(国内)。 [Popular Features]The disease began to appear in my country in the 1980s and is a disease with a high infection rate.The epidemic season of this disease is from May to June every year. The prevalent water temperature is 6-18°C, and it often occurs in cages and wintering ponds with slight running water, thin water quality and sufficient dissolved oxygen.When the fish body is injured, it is more prone to outbreaks, often accompanied by vertical squamous disease and water mold, and the death rate can be as high as 60%.When the water temperature rises above 20 ℃, the disease can be cured without treatment.In the fish farms without water flow, Yongyang Jieyang is low, and the disease rarely occurs or does not occur. 鲤白云病 病鱼靠近网箱溜边,不 吃食,游动缓慢。A large amount of mucus is secreted from the surface of the sick fish, forming a white film.In the early stage, the white film was mainly distributed on the head. With the development of the disease, it gradually spread to other parts. In severe cases, it seemed to be covered with a white cloud, especially in the head, back, and caudal fin.Some diseased fish scales fall off or stand up, and aquatic mold is often parasitic on the injured area, and the surface and fins are congested and bleeding.Diseased liver and kidney congestion. 【诊断】根据症状及流行情况进行初步诊断, 并需刮取体表黏液进行镜Check.When protozoa such as carp oblique tubeworm and rotifer are parasitic in large quantities, it can also cause a large amount of mucus secretion on the surface of the fry and cause death of sick fish.For further diagnosis, the source of disease must be separated and identified. 【防治】 (1)预防措施 ①应选择健壮、未受伤的鱼种,放养前鱼种用盐水 等进行浸泡。②Strengthen the feeding and management, enhance the disease resistance of the fish, and shorten the overwintering fasting period as much as possible. ③ Use quaternary ammonium salts to disinfect water bodies.Use 2-3mL of benzalkonium bromide solution per cubic meter of water, dilute 300-500 times, and then splash the whole pool. (2) Treatment methods ① Use Chinese herbal medicine for treatment. ②使用喹诺酮类药物进行治疗,每千克鱼体重每日 一次拌饵投喂烟酸、诺氟沙星预混剂[规格为(伊 诺氟沙星计)10%]15-20mg,连用3-5d. 6、淡水鱼细菌性败血病 【病原】嗜水气单胞菌。 [Epidemiological characteristics]The disease is the most widespread acute epidemic in my country, with the longest epidemic season, the most harmful species of freshwater fish, the largest age range of harmful fish, and the most serious losses.It can be infectious from the summer flower fingerling to the adult fish, mainly the 2nd instar adult fish.The disease is prevalent at 9-36°C, the epidemic time is from March to November, the peak period is from May to September, and the condition is alleviated after October.In particular, it is most serious when the water temperature continues to be above 28°C and the water temperature remains above 25°C after the high season. The disease can be spread through sick fish, germ contamination, utensils, and water sources. Birds preying on sick fish can also cause disease to spread. 【症状与病理】发病初期,病鱼外观症状是口腔、 上下颌、鳃盖、眼眶、鳍及鱼体两侧轻度充血,肠 道内尚有少量食物。严重者体表及肌肉充血或出血, 眼球突出,肛门红肿,腹部膨大,解剖时可见腹腔 内有淡黄色或淡红色的腹水,肝、脾、肾肿大,肝、 肾颜色变浅呈贫血状,脾呈紫黑色,肠道内没有食 物,而有黏液、积水或气体。Gill anemia is pale, and in severe cases the gill silk rots.Different fish have different symptoms at the time of onset. Even if the same fish are in different disease periods, their symptoms are not exactly the same. Sometimes the fish die without appearance symptoms. 细菌性败血症 【诊断】根据该病的流行病学、临床诊断和病理变 化,可初步作出诊断。If a diagnosis is required, it must be diagnosed in the laboratory. ①Preliminary diagnosis based on symptoms and epidemic situation: At the time of diagnosis, attention should be paid to the difference from grass carp hemorrhage caused by viral infection.Grass carp haemorrhagic disease mainly harms the fingerlings of grass carp and herring.This disease harms many kinds of freshwater farmed fish, and it is harmful to fingerling commercial fish. ②Further diagnosis based on pathological changes: In addition to widespread congestion and bleeding throughout the body, sick fish also undergo hemolysis.The anus is red and swollen, the abdomen is enlarged, and the abdomen is lightly pressed, and yellow or bloody ascites can flow from the anus.Liver, spleen and kidney were dissected, and the gallbladder was enlarged and congested. The intestine became vacuolated due to gas production. Most of the fish showed severe muscle congestion. 【防治】①清除淤泥,用生石灰或漂白粉彻底消毒。 ② The tools used in the affected fish ponds should be disinfected, and the dead and dead fish should be removed and buried in a timely manner and cannot be thrown around. ③Inject or soak the Aeromonas hydrophila vaccine before going to the pond, and follow the instructions. ④ The stocking density should be suitable, and 15-20mg/L potassium permanganate aqueous solution should be used for 10-30min before stocking. ⑤ Strengthen daily management, do not feed spoiled feed, and improve the disease resistance of fish. ⑥In the popular season, splash the whole pool with a limestone concentration of 25-30mg/L, once every half a month.Or spill bleach powder, the concentration is 11.5mg/L.The food court is regularly disinfected with bleaching powder and bleaching powder essence. 7、细菌性肠炎病 【病原】嗜水气单胞菌、豚鼠气单胞菌及肠型点状 气单胞菌。 [Popular characteristics]This disease mainly harms grass carp and herring.It is most harmful to grass carp above the age of one, and the mortality rate is generally about 50%, and in severe cases it can reach more than 90%.Other farmed fish such as silver carp, bighead carp, and common carp can also occur and occur throughout the country.流行于4-10月,水温18℃ 以上开始流行,发病高峰在水温25-30℃,一年中 有两个明显流行季节,5~6月主要是1-2龄草鱼、 青鱼,7-9The month is mainly caused by grass carp that year.It is often complicated by bacterial gill disease and erythroderma. 【症状与病理】病鱼离群独游,游动缓慢,体色发 黑,腹部膨大,肛门红肿突出,腹部有红斑。When the fish belly was cut open, some or all of the intestinal congestion and inflammation were red, there was no food in the intestinal cavity, and there were many yellowish mucus.In severe cases, peritoneal effusion, large amount of necrosis of mucosal epithelium in the intestine and shedding, intestinal wall microvascular congestion or bleeding, and intestinal wall loses elasticity. [Diagnosis](1) According to the symptoms, a preliminary diagnosis can be made. (2)实验室诊断 细菌性肠炎病 病鱼离群独游,游动 缓慢,体色发黑,腹 部膨大,肛门红肿突 出,腹部有红斑。Opening the fish belly shows that some or all of the intestinal congestion and inflammation are red, there is no food in the intestinal cavity, and there are many yellowish mucus.In severe cases, the peritoneal cavity is hydrated, a large amount of mucosal epithelium in the intestine is necrotic and shedding, the intestinal wall microvessels are congested or bleeding, and the intestinal wall loses elasticity. 鉴别诊断:与草鱼出血病的肠炎相区别 细菌性肠炎病时, 肠道充血发红,尤 以后肠段明显,肛 门红肿外突,肠道 内充满黄色积液, 用手轻按腹部,有 似脓状液体流出, 而病毒性出血病鱼 则无此症状。 【防治】(1)预防措施 ①彻底清塘消毒,保持水质清洁。②Choose excellent and healthy fish species, soak with 8-10mg/L bleaching powder for 15-30min before stocking.③ Sprinkle disinfection around the market with bleaching powder or quick lime every 15 days during the season of onset, or use 1mg/L bleaching powder or 20-30mg/L quick lime in the whole pool.At the time of onset, any of the above drugs can be spilled daily for 3 days. (2) Treatment ① Use 5g of garlic and 2g of salt per kilogram of fish per day, peel and mash the garlic, mix and feed, and feed for 3 days.②Use amide alcohol drugs for treatment.Each kilogram of fish body weight 2-3 times a day, feeding thiamphenicol powder (specification 100g: 5g) every time 0.35g, continuous use for 3-5 days; or feeding with oxytetracycline mixed bait, 100mg per kilogram of fish per day, continuous feed for 7-10 days. 8、打印病 【病原】点状气单胞菌点状亚种 【流行特点】又名腐皮病、溃烂病。该病主要危害 鲢鳙鱼,草鱼也可发病,从鱼种、成鱼直至亲鱼均 可发。
Map fish will bite tiger fish:
Mermaid&
What to do if the tiger fish is always black(
Fishbone poisonous tiger fish~
How is the fish treated?

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